Lighting has a massive impact on how a film and its contents are interpreted by the audience. For example, the use of low lighting can make the scene seem mysterious as the scene and the characters cannot be seen clearly. This can be seen in the shot featuring the shadows, where the character on the left, who is winning the game, is significantly larger and therefore overpowering their opponent, which represents their control over the game. This has a big impact as it suggests that the losing opponent has been completely overpowered, and that one player is clearly dominant in the game over the other, despite it has not been won yet.
Batman is significantly different to other known superheroes as, although he does demonstrate some characteristics that are associated with superheroes, he also shows some significant differences through how he identifies and the actions that he takes.
One example is his weakness. Many superheroes have weaknesses, such as Superman with Kryptonite and Iron-man needing to always keep his suit charged, but Batman does not have a physical weakness like these other superheroes. Instead, Batman’s weakness is his morality, as the only way to stop The Joker is to kill him, and his morals refuse for him to do so.
Another difference is one of Batman’s defining features of his character is the fact that he is unidentifiable and cannot be traced. However, as he is a significant, wealthy person in society, unlike being an average person like Peter Parker, he is more exposed to the public and therefore is more likely to be found out and therefore could be considered much more in danger.
- Their main strength is to attack the hero’s weakness: the more powerful the antagonist, the more difficult it is for the protagonist. Batman’s power comes from his ability to intimidate people, as well his physical strength, which is reflected in the sharp lines and dark colours of his costume. The Joker is able to create situations where he renders his powers useless, such as when he captured Rachel and Harvey Dent. Also, the fact that The Joker doesn’t fear death means that Batman’s power to intimidate cannot be used against him. Batman refuses to kill people, even criminals, and the only way to stop The Joker would be to kill him; this is the ultimate dilemma.
- Forcing the protagonist to make difficult choices: the more difficult choices the protagonist has to make, the truer the choice is to reflect that character. The Joker pressures Batman into making difficult decisions throughout the film, which get more and more serious as more people keep dying. This is clearly seen where Batman has to choose between Harvey Dent and Rachel.
- The Joker makes Batman wiser to his nature. At the beginning of the film, Batman expresses how he believes that all villains must have a desire for something, however by the end of the film he understands how The Joker only wishes to cause chaos and destruction.
9/11, President Bush Context:
- Batman is considered ‘a symbol of vigilantism,justice, vengeance and even fascism’
- It is heavily emphasised that Batman is a ‘force’ for good, who fights crime under his own rules whilst hiding his identity with a mask. Therefore, he pushes aside any restrictions that laws or the government can have on his perception of justice. He cannot be punished or hunted by enemies as his identity is unknown to the public, which gives him the freedom to go to any lengths to bring down the evil in the city of Gotham.
- Although it is stressed that Batman is willing to go to (almost) any lengths to bring justice and order, even if that means becoming the villain himself, it is also made very clear that he refuses to kill, even if the person is an evil villain. This is a great dilemma for his duty to bring justice, as The Joker cannot be intimidated and does not fear death. This causes the story to be very captivating as the only way to stop The Joker would be to kill him, therefore Batman must make the choice to either go against his morals or allow him to keep terrorising the city.
- Wealthy vigilante- considered very right wing. Reflects the nature of capitalism as he is only able to be Batman because he is rich. This therefore supports capitalism as a social structure as it suggests that good and justice can come from wealthy individuals instead of government powers.
- The Joker’s nature of lack of fear of death is very similar to that of the suicide bombers involved in 9/11, which was a new concept to the world after the attack on New York. This unpredictable nature creates a new sense of fear and vulnerability, as the general public can do nothing to prepare or protect themselves from their random violent attacks.
- Turner, P., 2013. Dark Knight, Dark Ideas. The ideology of Nolan’s Batman trilogy, 37-41.
- CrashCourse. (2014). Terrorism, War, and Bush 43: Crash Course US History #46. [Online Video]. 30 January 2014. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlsnnhn3VWE&feature=emb_logo. [Accessed: 9 December 2019].
Basic movement video:
Kulehsov effect can be seen in this clip from Jaws (1975) by Steven Spielberg, from 0:18-0:25
The Kuleshov Effect is a mental phenomenon by which viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.